Nano Materials and Nanotechnology

Nanomaterials are not simply another step in the miniaturization of materials or particles. They often require very different production approaches. There are several processes to create various sizes of nanomaterials, classified as ‘top-down' and ‘bottom-up'. Although large numbers of nanomaterial are currently at the laboratory stage of manufacture, many of them already are being commercialized whereas Nanotechnology, as defined by size, is naturally very broad, including fields of science as diverse as surface science, organic chemistry, molecular biology, semiconductor physics, energy storage, microfabrication, molecular engineering, etc. The associated research and applications are equally diverse, ranging from extensions of conventional device physics to completely new approaches based upon molecular self-assembly, from developing new materials with dimensions on the Nanoscale to direct control of matter on the atomic scale.